What are Iran’s best handicrafts?

Iranian handicrafts are signs of the culture and identity of the people of this land. These artifacts are rooted in Iranian civilization and date back to ancient Persia.

Iranian handicrafts constitute a significant part of traditional markets in different cities of our country. The handicrafts of each country can be considered a reflection of the civilization and culture of its people. Handicrafts have been one of the first tools for human interaction with each other in different societies and therefore provide significant information about the history of different countries of the world.


Iranian handicrafts have a significant share of exports of our country’s goods. Persian carpet is one of the most popular handicrafts in the world, which has a high price. Due to the employment of villagers, nomads and residents of small towns in this industry, it can be concluded that by investing appropriately in Iranian handicrafts, the economic infrastructure of the society will be strengthened.


Iranian handicrafts are the most beautiful works of artists in different disciplines. If you are interested in getting to know Iranian artworks and handicrafts, follow along with us. In this article, we will introduce Iranian handicrafts thoroughly and provide interesting information about the artworks of different cities.


Everything you want to know about Iranian handicrafts:

Introduction to Iranian Handicrafts

Variety of Iranian Handicrafts

Types of Iranian handicrafts texture

Best-selling Iranian handicrafts

Iran’s most popular export handicrafts

Iranian Handicrafts Stores

Cities and villages registered in the World Handicrafts List

Introduction to Iranian Handicrafts

Types of Printing Iranian Handicrafts


Iran, with a strong background in culture and civilization, has artistic relics from centuries past. Today, this country is considered as one of the most prominent exporting areas of art and handicrafts in the world. Iranian handicrafts are one of the most valuable artworks in our country and are a manifestation of the culture of national ethnicities of Iran. The discovery of man-made artifacts in monuments around our country tells of the close relationship between art and handicrafts and the civilization of this land.


In Iranian historical monuments, there are signs of art by architects, painters and engineers in tombs, mosques, palaces and monuments. Each of these works, with prominent signs from different historical periods, represents a part of the identity and culture of people of their age and time.


Iranian handicrafts are artworks made by craftsman’s artists in our country and represent part of Iranian culture and identity.

In general definition, the combination of hand art and the use of native and traditional tools in creating a work is called handicrafts. Artistic virtuosity and artisan creativity have a great impact on the creation of artworks and handicrafts. The handicrafts of each region of Iran are unique, although there are common industries in some cities, in the fabric of each work, there can be signs of the deep-rooted culture of a city or village. The most fundamental element in handicrafts is human hand art, and this doubles the value of these works.


Iranian handicrafts, as the indigenous and traditional art of land peoples, play an effective role in strengthening the economic situation of different regions of the country. Currently, Iranian handicrafts are one of the top three hubs of handicrafts in the world, and appropriate investment along with careful planning in production and introducing these works globally can bring high revenues at the national level.


In general, handicrafts can be divided into three categories: artistic, artistic-consuming and consumer handicrafts. These industries are distinct from factory products due to their subtleties of manual design. One of the most important features of handicrafts is the use of raw materials made inside the country. The added value of these products is also very high due to the initial investment and it is possible to expand the industry in deprived and rural areas. The extent of the industry’s damage to the environment is also negligible compared to the destructive effects of modern and machine industries.

Variety of Iranian Handicrafts

Iranian Handicrafts There is a high variety in different parts of the country. Each of Iran’s cities and villages produces different handicrafts in proportion to the climate and facilities of each region. Over the years, the diversity of Iranian handicrafts has increased and distanced itself from its first category, but many of the productions produced by Iranian artists fall into the following subsets.


Weave & Textile Crafts


Traditional texture and textile are among the oldest handicrafts in Iran. The industry was formed in order to meet the human need for cover and some everyday items and was divided into different branches. Today, the traditional textile and texture industry can be considered as one of the most versatile handicrafts in Iran. In different provinces of our country, the texture of carpets and kilims and various types of traditional textile are common, which are among the most famous handicrafts in these regions. Some of the subcategory of this industry are: Gabbeh Weaving, Jajim Weaving, Silk Weaving, Night Weaving Tent, Velvet Weaving, Curtain Weaving, Khos Weaving, Weaving Tape, Shamad Weaving and Chafee Weaving.


Metal Crafts


The discovery of metal in ancient times attracted human attention to this material as the first to make the supplies needed for life, and its use for the preparation of a variety of everyday containers and tools became common due to its high strength. Among the remaining works of ancient Persia, many examples of metallic devices are seen. For this reason, the history of metal crafts can be attributed to ancient Persia.


Today, metal crafts, especially its expensive types such as silverware and copper squatters, are among the most popular handicrafts in Iran. Artist craftsmen create unique works using special tools and hours of time to engrave and shape metal types. One of the most famous branches of metal crafts is the arts of davatgari, engraving, etching, goldsmithing, goldsmithing, silverworking, coppering, casting, ornamentation, weaponry and marking.


Enamel Crafts


Enamel crafts are one of the most beautiful dishes and decorative items that are very hard to make. Mina Kari’s artworks are one of the most expensive handicrafts in Iran, made by the most skilled artisan masters. The art dates back more than 5,000 years. Mina Kar artists create beautiful works by combining matte colors and working with tiles and metal. Subsets of the pug industry include mari, lattice, painting enamel and enamel, and mina is the hardest field of this art.




Wooden Crafts


Wooden crafts are one of the most beautiful Iranian artworks that have been popular in Iran for many years. These industries are very broad and there are many artists working in it. Different cities of Iran have various wooden handicrafts, among them kharati, mosaic construction, inlaid, inlay and lattice. Wood craftsmen’s hand-made artworks are of great use in everyday life. One of the most popular works and wooden crafts are inlaid works.


Stone Crafts


Stone milling and engraving on it is one of the first handicrafts of Iranians, of course, ancient stone objects in different parts of the world show the history of this art all over the world. Stone crafts have changed a lot over time, and with the discovery of beautiful and decorative stones in the corners of the world, lathes and stone ornaments have also become common. The main subcategory of these industries are the works of stone mosaic, turquoise, stone engraving, rock lattice and stone curry. Stone artworks are one of the most enduring handicrafts.


Traditional Printing Crafts


In the past, they used two types of printing in the traditional way. Printing on paper and printing on fabrics were different branches of traditional printing. These industries were first built to decorate textiles and paper, but over time it also found its place in the architecture of mosques and monuments. The most beautiful examples of traditional printing in Iranian historical mosques such as Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque. Different types of pens and hats are also among the subsets of traditional Iranian printing.


Mat Weaving Crafts


Mat weaving is another old Iranian handicraft that is still prevalent in the southern and northern regions of our country. Today, wicker crafts are used as souvenirs. Although mat weaving industries can be considered as one of the subcategory of wooden crafts, the vastness of this branch and its high position in the handicrafts market make it a separate branch in the industry.


To make wicker works in different parts of the country, palm leaves, wheat stems, straws and a variety of cracks are used. Wicker equipment has a high application in people’s daily life, especially in areas with high sultry climates. Virtuoso artists produce a variety of works by painting the mat and combining it with colored yarns. One of the subsets of mat weaving art is Boria weaving, marvar weaving, bumbabafi and basket weaving.



Leather Crafts


Leather artifacts are among the most popular handicrafts in Iran. Of course, leather crafts are produced in different parts of the world and can be said to be one of the most important export handicraft products in the world. The leather industry is one of the most expensive handicrafts in the market, and handmade leather works are among the most expensive in the market. The variety of leather artworks is high and includes a variety of garments, bags, shoes and decorative items. One of the most important subsets of leather crafts is traditional leather cover, traditional saddlery, leather sewing, leather mosaic, leather painting, saddle making and leather engraving.




Best-selling Iranian handicrafts


Persian carpet is the best-selling product of our country’s handicrafts. Carpets in different regions of the country have their fans and Iranian handmade carpets still have a good domestic market. Other well-selling handicrafts in the country include wooden crafts. Furniture, sleep service and many other home appliances are wooden artifacts and inlaid art is one of the most popular arts among Iranians.


Other popular handheld products in the Iranian market are copper and glass containers. A significant portion of the sales of traditional markets in Isfahan and Shiraz belong to copper handicrafts. Ceramic and pottery artifacts are also popular among tourists and many travelers buy souvenirs from these crafts. Different types of mosaics, pugs, handmade jewelry, crochet and navy embroidery are among the other best-selling handicrafts in different cities of Iran.


Iran’s most popular export handicrafts


Iran is one of the most active countries in this field with activities in 370 of the 600 well-known handicrafts in the world. Iranian handicrafts are exported to Iraq, Turkey, UAE, China, South Korea, Indonesia and Afghanistan, and Iranian rugs are also one of the most important export goods of our country to continental Europe and you can order whatever you like in Persiana.


Among other popular Iranian products and handicrafts in the world are copper, pottery, felt, etching and pug industries. Although over the past years, exports of handicrafts have grown significantly, the arena for the expansion of Iranian handicrafts and works is ready and requires more careful investment and planning. In 2017, Iran’s handicrafts ranked second in exports and first in non-oil exports. Among the different provinces of our country, Isfahan province is a leader in the export of handicrafts.

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Barberry is one of the resistant shrubs that can grow and produce in low-interest lands with saline water and pay more attention to it, while increasing the production capacity of agricultural products, can also be effective in protecting the soil of the region. Consumption of barberry in fresh form is not common due to its sour taste, by preparing various products such as jam, marmalade, juice, soft drinks, sauce, jelly, etc. Barberries vulgaris, while attracting surplus production on consumption and creating added value, can also be introduced to international markets in the name of Iran.




Barberry is one of the resistant shrubs that can grow and produce in low-interest lands with saline water and pay more attention to it, while increasing the production capacity of agricultural products, can also be effective in protecting the soil of the region. Consumption of barberry in fresh form is not common due to its sour taste, by preparing various products such as jam, marmalade, juice, soft drinks, sauce, jelly, etc. Barberries vulgaris, while attracting surplus production on consumption and creating added value, can also be introduced to international markets in the name of Iran.


Barberry is a native plant of Iran and its seedless type has established a reputation for southern Khorasan regions, especially Qaen and Birjand.


In some sources about the historical background of barberry and its origin, it is stated that the first time a person named Ja’far founded the cultivation and production of seedless barberry in affin village of Zirkuh district of Qaen county. He is said to have been captured by turkmens during the Turkmen greyhounds, but while escaping from captivity, he saw seedless barberry shrubs on his way back and moved it to his village and cultivated it. Thus, it seems that the first breeding place for seedless barberry is affin village, which has a historical history. He may have observed this type of barberry in Shirvan area in northern Khorasan.


Dark Barberry Berberidaceae


In the form of herbaceous plants, perennials with evergreen leaves and early drops, are often prickly and sometimes seen as shrubs or even small trees. There are usually different types of benzyl isokinelin in this family and its tissues are yellow due to having berberine (a type of isokinoline). Wooden elements have simple perforation plates, and sometimes these perforated parts are affixed as ladders on a given plate and a limited number of horizontal blades are between them. Non-conduit-free traction elements come with simple pores. Broad brain rays have similar or relatively similar cells.


The leaves are alternating, simple or compound (barberry leaves are simple and have a joint at the base of the broadleaf) and are rarely the norm. Sometimes the leaves are reduced to milk thistle. Petiole has 3, up to a large number of vascular hands that form an arc or two rings, the stipol does not exist or has been decomposed.Flowers are regular, complete, single or complex in clusters, spikes or forms of panicol or gresven. De gaulles are often folded towards the base. The type of flowers is low and pollination is done by insects. Flower fragments are usually double or triple and are in two rows. Each flower has 4 to 6 bract-like petals in two rows. Domestic petals are mostly petal-like decomposed flags that produce drinks. The number of flags is 4 or more, but it is often 6 and usually in front of petals with a drink. Ansak pollen bags are usually 4. The madness is a burgian, but sometimes it looks like two to three burgets. The ovary is of a high type and the egg is overturned or partially overturned, and many of them may be placed on a thick placenta on the ovarian margin. Cream is outstanding and has 3 lobes. The fruit is mostly a cube set.


This family consists of 15 genera and 650 species and is mostly distributed in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The most important genus of barberry is barberry (500 species), mahonia (100 species) and podophilum. All three sexes have chromosomal basis 7.






Barberry is the largest genus in this family. Fossils of this genus are known from the Pleistocene period. The color and shape of the bark of the branches change as the tree ages. The skin color of the branches varies from yellow to brown, gray and purple. One-year-old branches are usually yellow and have many long branches of blades. The leaves are alternating, simple, creeping and sometimes evergreen and have petioles that are part of the broadleaf usually located on the sides and narrow. The stem is prickly and the spines may be single, trident or sometimes 5 branches. These spines are caused by the deformation of the leaves.


Flowers are regular, bisexual, often complex in the type of false cluster or gresan or sometimes panicol and rarely single. The flowers of the complex are more or less dangling, the flowers are usually shrunk in May or June, the flowers are tripled and in two rows, i.e. they have 6 petals and 6 petals, the flowers are lower and early, the makeup of the florets is imbricate). Usually, 1 to 2 rows of nectar glands are located on petals between flower cups and flags. Flags are usually 6 and in two rows, but they may vary by 4 to 18 depending on the species. Flags have a short bar and have a joint in the base. The flags outside are epipentals and are in front of petals. Ansaks are two chambers and fix game, i.e. they are attached to the flag bar from the base. Ansaks are breaked by two valves from both sides.


The madge is a number and has a high ovary and a house that has 2 to 3 brackes and according to some 1 brackeh with basal oocytes. Its stigma is 1 and its fruit is cube-like and red, which often has 2 to 3 seeds. The fruit is usually elliptical and may sometimes reach up to 13 mm. On the fruit there are small bumps related to the remains of stigma and cream. The embryo is seed, dolpe and small, and its andusperm is abundant.


It seems that barberry in Iran has often lost its original nature due to interspecies crosses, so that they do not match the existing identifiers completely.


Barberry species

Some species of barberry in Iran are as follows:


Barberry HawthornBerberis crataegina


Barberry Zarafshani Berberis integerrima


Barberry Khorasani Berberis khorasanica


Barberry Right ClusterBerberis orthobotrys


Typical Barberry Berberis vulgaris


Japanese Barberryvar.atropurpurea Berberis thunbergii


Here’s a description of these species.




Barberry HawthornBerberis crataegina DC.1810


The wooden stem, 1 meter high sometimes up to 3 meters, is the color of the branches reddish to reddish-brown, the elderly stems are brown or grayish brown and have edesk. The branches are fairly bright, groovy and prickly. Spines are 1.5 to 3 cm long, harder and bulkier, yellow and brighter than stems, simple or sometimes tri-branched.


Leaves are slightly leathery to leathery, stretched, elliptical to eggage or 3.5-5*1-2 cm, the leaf base gradually leads to petiole. The tip of the leaves is sharp, rarely round, the margins of the leaves are smooth or have regular sawtooths. The length of the leaf is approximately three times its width. The back and on the leaves are light green and cannot be seen at the top level of the aperture leaf.


Inflorescents with lengths of 2 to 5 cm, simple cluster or panicol, inflorescent pike about 6 to 10 mm, number of flowers between 5 and 20 and sometimes may reach up to 40. The fruit is stretched, without cream, 11 mm long and 5 to 9 mm wide, elliptical, red at first but then black.




The type sample of this species is mentioned in Asia Minor. This species is found in different parts of Iran such as Tehran, Gachsar, Alborz, Karaj, Ramian, Kandlus, Shahreek, Qazvin, Taleghan, Firoozkooh, and possibly Birjand in Khong and Salmabad regions. Adjacent countries are also seen in Turkey, Armenia, southern Turkmenistan.


It seems that this species produces hybrids with barberry. These hybrids are mostly seen in Shahroud, Kurdistan, Tehran, Karaj and Arak. Hybrids that resemble the confluence of this species with ordinary barberry are also seen in the northern regions of Iran, especially Mazandaran, Gorgan, Azadshahr and Tehran provinces.


Barberry ZarafshaniBerberis integerrima bunge,(1843)


The wooden stem, height of 4 meters (according to some reports sometimes up to 9 meters), its color is yellow to light brown or dark, has a dusk or without it and the old stems are gray. Its branches are more or less grooved. Spines are usually simple, but in searches and branches of barren three branches, the length of the spines is about 1 to 4 cm, narrow, long, sharp and yellow or the same color as the stems. Leather leaves, ellipses or egg particles, smooth leaf margins, in searches and barren branches have sharp scattered dents that reach up to 12 on each side. The rule of leaves gradually narrows towards the petiole. The leaf dimensions are 2-3.5*5-5.3 cm and the length of the leaves is 2 to 3 times its width, and sometimes the length of the leaves reaches to 7, the width of the leaves reaches to 4, and the petiole length is 3 cm. The lower level of the leaf is green but paler than the upper level. The veins are distinctive and prominent at the lower aperture level and the upper level has aperture.


Inflorescular panicle or panicol, 2 to 7 cm, has 6 to 35 and less than 50 flowers. The fruit of that clove set, 7 to 8 mm, red to purple, floured, without creamy or its effect, elliptical or somewhat spherical and their number in each cluster is between 14 and 24.


Changes in this species are very important and have different varieties. This species has different synonyms. These synonyms differ slightly. Leaf sides, the condition of their dents, the brachyblastus status, i.e. inflorescences from short branches on long branches and large spines have various changes that seem to have little continuity. A constant index is the marginal status of leaves in germ shoots, while in small nazal branches the dents are connected to each other at inequality intervals. Another indicator of the production of thick and leathery leaves is that these leaves are permanent in some cases and can lead to the diagnosis of this species from other species.




This species is very distribution in Iranica region (Asia Minor). In eastern Turkey, Iran, eastern Iraq, Afghanistan, caucasus, Turkmenistan, western Pakistan, Kashmir and western China are seen a lot. In Iran, there are Azerbaijan, Lorestan, Khuzestan, Fars, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Tehran, Karaj, Gachsar, Tochal, Damghan, Gorgan and Khorasan in Bojnord, Esfarayen, Dargaz, Sarakhs, Torbat-e-Jam, Torbat-e-Heydariyeh, Fariman, Kalat, Alam Kuh, Shirvan, Kopet Dagh, Quchan, Robat Sefid, Mashhad, Kashmar and Birjand.


This species interferes with other species in eastern Turkey and Iran and has two different veins between this species with seedless barberry (Azerbaijan, Mazandaran, Gorgan, Kurdistan, Hamedan, Qazvin and Khorasan in Qaen, Old Men shah, Salmabad, Zeshk and Rivesh), Hawthorn There is also the possibility of trilateral hybrids, but these hybrids may be achieved in large areas and their grading is very difficult.B.integerrima=B.vulgaris var.densifloraand B.integerrima=B.vulgaris var.serratifolia are among the indicator varieties of this species. The first variety is seen in the Pir Zangoleh and Pierre Amarlu regions and the second variety in Azerbaijan, Ehrud, Nahavand, Shemshak and Kermanshahan.


Some of these barberry seem to be the following confluences.


B.orthobotrys * B.integerrima


B.vulgaris * B. integerrima


Examples also appear to be a trilateral confluence below.


B.orientalis * B.turcomanica * B.integerrima


Brachyblastus leaves are smooth or have few dents in the mentioned cases and its spines are stronger than regular barberry. The buds of the previous two years are not like regular white barberry, but tend to brown a little and bring it closer to barberry.


B.turcomanica or a variety of barberry appears to be zarafshani or a species that has a close kinship with it or, according to the newer theory, the integerrima variety is a subset of B.turcomanica. Var.integerrima B.turcomanica . . sample of barberry zarafshan type described by old experts, his sheets are not unlike the barberry leather and meat and like B.orientalis is more narrow, thin and serrated and looks two vessels.


Barberry KhorasaniBerberis khorasanica


A shrub with wooden stems, aged stems of grayish brown and cleavage, thin skin, shallow or deep grooves and young reddish-brown branches. Spines are downward or vertical relative to the stem, the length of spines is 1.5 to 2.5 cm, the color of the spines is yellow or yellowish-brown or gray. The leaves are stretched membrane or somewhat leathery, oval, lozenge or rectangular with slow angles and are in the form of eggs or spoons. Sawtooth dents and thin thorny leads, vein lattices on two prominent and dense surfaces, distinctive petiole and 1 cm long. The leaves are painted red in autumn. Inflorescent flowers are simple, stretched, straight or more or less hung, roughly the size of leaves or a little more, and the number of flowers up to 20 in clusters and color of flowers is yellow. Seteh fruit, the number of fruits per cluster is 12 to 30, the length of the fruit is 8 to 10 mm, the color of the red brick fruit to the egg-shaped liver, with a certain cream with a length of about half a millimeter.


In some exceptional samples, the size of sets with diameters of 9 to 10 mm and length of 13 to 14 mm has been observed and the cluster of these samples sometimes has up to 30 flowers and the same number of sets. These samples are named gifts by the Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of Khorasan Center and further research is ongoing. The seeds are 2 to 4 and each is 4 to 7 mm long.




This plant is native to Iran and was first mentioned in Iran in 1975 in Iranian flora, its type sample has been seen in Golestan and has been brought by Broich and Zielensky as a new species. Its distribution site is Khorasan and at an altitude of 1350 meters between Bojnord and Maraveh Tappeh has been observed in the limestone soils of Golestan National Park, 12 to 20 km north of Kashmar and in the south of Khorasan in Qain.


Barberry Right ClusterBerberis orthobotrys


The wooden stem, in an angled, somewhat groovy cross section, has small and black lenses and a height of 3 to 4 meters.Gray flowering branches, young narza branches (probably nerc pajooshes) in red to brown and the rest of the previous year’s branches are more or less gray and dark. Yellow spines with lengths of 1.5 to 2.5 cm are simple or three-part. The leaves adjacent to brachyblastus are stretched leather or somewhat ellipsoidal leather to an egg area of 10*10*16 mm and a relatively smooth margin. The leaves are stretched on barren branches with dimensions of 4.5-5.5±2.5 cm, ellipse, egg ovoid with circular tip and more distinctive teeth, petiole length 5 mm, leaf broadleaf in petiole and lead to stem.


Inflorescins is a dense cluster of 1.5 to 3.5 cm and the number of flowers is 5 to 20. The fruit of the cube set, pear shaped 8 to 10 mm long and 5 to 6 mm in diameter and its pike size is 5 mm, oval and reddish black, stigma is seen at the end but almost without cream. The seeds are 3 and black.




The distribution of this plant is mostly in northern Iran and southern Turkmenistan. In Iran, this plant is mostly in the Zarringol Valley towards Abar Mountain at an altitude of 1800 meters, Syrup Valley in Gorgan, Northern Slopes of Regal Mountain, Haji Lang Valley at an altitude of 2400 to 2600 meters, Kelardasht Mazandaran, Kandlus Between Kiasar and Neka at heights of 750 to 900 meters, there are thousandjaribs in Marznabad valley between Karaj and Chalous at heights of 1300 meters and in Khorasan in Shirvan and possibly in Birjand, Salmabad region.


The correct identification of this species and its origin is ambiguous. Except in The Flora of Iranica and some other sources, all of which are sources of Iranian flora, this species is not mentioned.


Typical BarberryL. Berberis vulgaris


Woody stem, a shrub with a height of 3 meters and sometimes up to 6 meters, the branches are fragile when shivarvarv is young and has many branches and searches. Fresh branches are due to the presence of white barbarians to yellowish green, purple yellow or reddish brown, but in stems from one year to the top brown and gradually gray and then black and metastruding. Spines on short, simple or branched trident branches, 1 to 4 cm long, finer, thin, yellowish white, gray yellow or slightly brown and usually the same color stem or slightly brighter. Its leaves are leathery or partially membraneed, alternating, length 3.5 to 7 cm, width 1 to 3 cm elliptical, egg-wide, wide, smooth flanks or with sharp, thorn-like teeth. The end of the leaf is sharp or has some curvature. The veins are lattice, dense and tangled. The upper level of leaves without aperture, upper and lower levels of the leaf is a little less colored or the lower level is about 5 to 10 mm and the broadleaf gradually leads to it.


Inflorescence complex, hanging cluster, 3 to 6 and rarely 7 cm.20 to 25 times to 40 flowers.Flower parts are 6 parts, flags are 6 and very sensitive and with little contact or collision something bends on the stigma.In nature, insects usually cause bending of flags on the stigma of mud. The fruits are integrated and hung in clusters.The fruit of the red cubes such as, ellipse or pseudo-oval, with a length of 7 to 12 mm and a diameter of 6 to 9 mm. Each fruit contains 2 and rarely 3 seeds, each of which is 5 to 6 mm long.




The type sample of this species has been found in the forests of Europe. This plant has a high distribution in Iran and is seen in steep slopes, especially limestone soils in Azerbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan, Tehran, Khorasan (Dargaz, Sarbisheh, Qaen, Salmabad) and Fars. In northern Turkey, the Caucasus, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Armenia, the plant has different varieties and produces two vessels with most species of barberry.


Important varieties of this type include:


B.vulgaris var.asperma


Most berber barberry are of this cultior




B.vulgaris var.brachiobotrys


= B.orientalis var.brachiobotrys


Its leaves are smaller than the original species and can be seen on the Firuzkooh-Semnan road.


B.vulgaris var.macrantha


= B.integerrima var.macrantha


Thorns are coarse in this cultibult and can be seen in Gorgan, Shahroud, Kerman and Shahdad.


B.vulgaris var.alba


White Fruits


B.vulgaris var.alba-variegata


Green leaves with yellow


B.vulgaris var.argento marginata


Leaves with silver margin


B.vulgaris var.atropurpurea


Spicy purple leaves


B.vulgaris var.auro-marginata


Leaves with golden yellow margin and usually host wheat rust.


Japanese Barberryvar.atropurpurea Berberis thunbergii


A reliable shrub with a height of 0.9 to 1.8 meters, single branches, soft-textured longitudinal, round shrub, its spread slightly more than the length of red or purple branches in summer, red in autumn and zigzag stem growth pattern. The leaves are autumnal, alternating, spatolla-like or egg-like (very wide at the free end), red or purple red, and this barberry is interested in acidic or neutral soils.


Flowers are high, reddish yellow and appear in April and May. Seteh fruit is a bright red cube that arrives in October, is attractive and remains in winter for a while.




It originated in France in 1913 and is now native to Japan and is grown as an ornamental plant resistant to dry conditions in many places. Its prickly stem is widespread on the ground and can contain excess waste and materials in urban areas. Many varieties have been developed through vegetative and seeding, including:


Bagatella cultiot (Pacotta)


Cherry Bomb Figure


Crimson pigmy cultivar (clean and resistant to poor soils with completely red branches)


Golden ring figure


Red chief figure


Rose glow cultivar (with reddish and yellowish leaves resistant to poor soils)


Royal bergandi (paxotah) figure


Variegat cultitar (Green Leaves)


Thornless cultior (no thorns) confluence of this species with seedless barberry can be considered to create barberry without thorns.


Sparkle cultiots (dark green shoots but in autumn reddish orange.


Ornamental barberry and their application in green spaces


Ornamental barberry species can be categorized into three groups: evergreen and semi-evergreen treasurer. Evergreen medicinal shrubs are used in designing green spaces in rocky gardens to the margins of parks individually or in small categories because of their suitable characteristics such as yellow to orange cluster flowers of red to blue-purple fruits, beautiful change of foliage color in autumn and height ranging from 30 cm to about 2.5 meters. Barberry ornamental cultivars have a great variety in terms of the shape and color of their leaves and fruits. Most of the treasurer’s barberry is of Asian origin and grows easily in the sun or a little shade and almost any soil that has good drainage. These species usually have egg leaves and red cubes. Evergreen barberry has leather leaves, often cardi-shaped and serrated with blue, black and purple fruits. They are mainly of Asian origin and few are from South America.


Berberis darwinii and Berberis stenophylla are the most beautiful ever-growing vegetable shrubs, native to northeastern America. Japanese barberry is often planted as a hedge or an ornamental shrub, and several varieties with its purple or yellow foliage are used in the design of green spaces. It is in different parts of the world and has good compatibility until 1981, 16 different beautiful varieties have been introduced which are classified into two groups of red leaves (purple) called atropurpurea and green leaf group.


Ornamental species of barberry in Iranian botanical gardens


According to the information in 1972-1974, about 32 foreign species of barberry were imported and cultivated by The Iranian Botanical Garden and 6 foreign species were imported and cultivated by Karaj College of Agriculture.


National Botanical Garden of Iran


There are currently 7 species and barberry ornamental hybrids with the following scientific names in this garden:


B.ottawansis(B.thunbergii*B.vulgaris) B.vulgaris


  1. thunbergii var.atropurpure B.wilsoniae


B.lologensis(B.darwinii*B.linearifolia)             B.coxii






In the greenhouse of this garden, the following two species have been cultivated through seeds:


B.morrisonensis B.koreana




Noshahr Botanical Garden


There are currently 7 species and varieties in this garden:












B.wilsoniae var.sabcaulialta


B.gagnepainii var.lanceifolia


There are also 4 species in the garden that are currently gone.


B.orientalis var.brachibotrys









Chemical compounds:


In all parts of this plant, there are berberine, oxiacantin, brabamine alkaloids. The amount of alkaloids in barberry root bark is higher than other parts of this plant.


Barberry fruit has about 4% sugars, 65% malic acid and tartaric acid and gum.


Other different barberry alkaloids include brabamine, berberubine, jaatorizin, oxiacantin, palmatin, broulisin, clombamine and valercin and other compounds. (10)




Barberry Shapes


Barberry is supplied in the form of tea, capsules, extracts, liquid or tinctures or topical ointments, and the extracts of this substance are standardized as a drug containing 8-12% of the alkaloid content of isokinolin.


Barberry Food Consumptions


Barberry has been the ornament of Iranian tablecloths for many years due to its pleasant color and taste. This type of barberry as a supplement to rice and saffron is present in many Iranian tablecloths and it is used in the preparation of barberry rice with chicken, bottom of china and a variety of foods.Its premature fruit is used in the preparation of jam, lavashk, juice and syrup.


Medicinal uses of barberry


Barberry leaves and fruit

Barberry fruit has a cold and dry nature and in traditional medicine, liver and heart tonic, bile, stomach heat reliever and blood cellulator is hemorrhoids, and also prevents chronic bleeding. In the case of cold temperamental persons if it is mixed with hot medications such as valerian to strengthen and unblock the liver is very beneficial, barberry leaves alone or mixed with medications suitable for intestinal ulcers as well as the elimination of diarrhea caused by weakness of the urticacia and viscera inside the abdomen are used. In Mongolia, barberry is used to remove moisture and relieve bleeding and for diseases with mucosal secretions, as well as for barberry fruit, the shrunken properties of the vessels, and berberine as a stomach tonic and antiemetic during pregnancy, chewing barberry leaves also causes firmness of the gums. It is also used to treat side effects of vitamin C deficiency. 8) For the treatment of chronic diarrhea, 15 to 30 grams of dried leaves of barberry shrub are poured and boiled in half a liter of cold water. They then sweeten it with honey and drink a cup of it every day between the main dishes. Also, barberry bag was used in chronic dysentery, watering and in scurvy. (11)


New research in animal models confirms past views on the prohibition of barberry dissuades in pregnancy. It was found that berberine, which is one of the main alkaloids of barberry fruit, can cause smooth muscle contractions of the uterus and increased contraction can lead to miscarriage. It should be noted that berberine, in addition to its abortive effects, causes teratogenic effects due to its toxicity in high doses.


Also, dihydropalimitinum dihydroxide palmitinium in barberry fruit has anti-estrogenic properties that cause endometrial atrophy and reversal of stromal glands and wrinkles, these changes cause complete lack of nutrition of the fetus and impaired fetal developmental function. In addition, studies on animal model showed that administration of 3.5 kg/g of barberry fruit aqueous extract in mice, Balb/c breed on days 7, 8, 9 of pregnancy, which is equal to 3 months of age in humans, can stop fetal growth and incidence. Anomalies in the vertebrae, nervous system, eyes, face and hands, considering that barberry is used as a fun drink in some parts of Iran such as Shahroud Sabzevar and Birjand, it is necessary to follow up the effects of barberry fruit in a comprehensive human study in pregnancy so that it can be used with Proper use of it prevented the possible complications.


Barberry stem and root bark

The bark of barberry root is warm and dry in nature and at the same time there is a force of coldness and astringent. It is diureal and its syrup is bitter. Its brewed liver tonic is cold. Barberry root and stems were previously used in medicine, especially since Galen, Dioscoride, Pliny, ancient Greek and Roman scientists, as tonics and appetizers. It is also used as bile and laxity.


Decoction of dried bark of barberry root along with honey is beneficial for the excretion of kidney stones and bladder. For the treatment of those who have been poisoned with opium, barberry root decoction is commonly used because of its morphine-like properties and for addiction withdrawal. It is also useful for the excretion of kidney stones and treatment of jaundice and gallstones. To prepare the decoction of barberry root bark, soak 20-25 g of dry root skin for 15 minutes in a liter of water and then put the container on the flame to simmer, then sweeten with honey and drink three cups of it every day.


In China and Japan, Japanese barberry shrub bark is used as an anti-parasite and disinfectant coolant and is also prescribed to reduce fever as well as to treat excessive menstrual blood secretion.


In the U.S. and Europe, barberry stem and root skin have previously been used as disinfectants, astringents, jaundice treatment, laxatives, fever, stomach pain treatment and antistatic drugs and bitter invigorating drugs. Flowers and stem skin have also been used as a drug for the treatment of rheumatism.


The root bark has laxative properties and opens the liver and gallbladder. To solve the liver crisis, 25 grams of dry skin soaks the roots of this plant in half a liter of cold water for half an hour, then they sweeten after straightening and drink a cup after each meal. In addition to its beneficial effect on liver discomfort, this decoction removes jaundice and gallstones because it sorts the liver and excretes bile abroad. This decoction is also effective on the kidneys and destroys the sand and kidney stones.




Application of barberry in the treatment of other diseases in Iran


The results of studies have shown that brabamin, a benzyl isokinelin alkaloid that exists in barberry root skin and has strong antioxidant properties, has been effective in reducing fibrosis caused by antietetanic drug bleomycin. Pathological study showed that bleomycin caused severe stimulation of lung bubbles and clateran accumulation and brabamine could significantly mitigate its effect.


According to a research in Mashhad School of Pharmacy, barberry root and aerial organs extracts were tested on mice and amster (a guinea pig-like animal) in the treatment of salk and amster (a guinea pig animal) and preliminary results indicated the effective therapeutic properties of this plant extract.


Dental plaque is one of the most common complications in Iranian society, which is the main cause of tooth decay and gingival amas. According to the microbial nature of this plaque and also due to the antimicrobial activity of stem and root bark extract, which contains about 1.5% berberine, a type of dental gel is formulated accordingly and its effects showed a severe reduction in dental plaque and gingival amas complication.




Other Uses and Applications


Barberry is used in addition to the mentioned uses, for dyeing wool, silk and cotton fibers. There are several reasons to use plant and mineral dyes for dyes (especially wool), which are mainly the stability of these colors and the preservation of the environment as a result of their application.


Also, barberry wood, which is very good, is used for inlay and inlaid work, and its thorn is also useful for toothpicks. In addition, barberry wood is polishable.


Duplication Methods


Barberry proliferation is done by pajoush, rooting stem cuttings and seed planting. Usually, stem cuttings are prepared in a shiny manner at the end of autumn. Proliferation by seed or seed is done in spring or autumn and usually seeds are planted at a depth of 2.5 cm of soil. The best method of proliferation of this plant is pajoush. Barberry grows and develops in every soil. Usually, before the construction of the barberry garden, they plow deeply and give fertilizer to the ground from the second year. Small barberry seedlings load after reaching a height of 30 cm. From the second year, pruning of this plant is done. Plant culture intervals are at least 3*3 meters for water cultivation and up to 7*7 m for dry landfed cultivation (in arid areas due to dewatering is high distance, each plant should be able to absorb maximum moisture from the surrounding soil) the depth of barberry seedling planting pits is 70*50*50 cm.


Barberry Pests



Barberry aphids

Leafy Butterfly

Two-point tick




Barberry Diseases


  • Do not completely change the color of the fruit


  • Wrinkled and dried fruit


  • Sweeping


  • Booking branches


  • Spotting the back of the leaves


  • Dryness and deterioration of shrubs


Harvesting Methods


Barberry harvesting takes place at one stage and if early autumn rains do not occur, harvest time can be delayed until the fruit is achieved excellent quality in terms of taste, because the unripe fruits are quite sour and somewhat gassed.


In some years, with early autumn rains (due to limited facilities of gardeners) during the drying period of barberry, problems are created and the crop is rotted or damaged in the threshing, so barberry farmers to avoid the adverse effects of these rainfalls usually harvest barberry earlier than the appropriate time.


Barberry harvesting due to the thinness of fruit bark and also the presence of many spines and density of branches in this shrub is one of the most difficult and costly stages of production of this product. Currently, barberry harvesting is done in the following ways:


  • Porcelain cluster method (picking clusters by hand)


  • Impact method (harvesting by hitting branches)


  • Branching method (cutting branches carrying fruit clusters)


  • Integrated method (branch-on-impact method)


  • Mechanical Harvesting System


Barberry Processing


The main form of preparation of this product is dried barberry, which is mainly produced in the south of Khorasan and is used in different parts of Iran as a food additive to traditional foods such as barberry rice and also jam preparation.Fruit 1 Fresh barberry is also limited to the market in the harvest season, which is mid-October, and especially in Birjand, Cain, Mashhad and Neyshabur, people at home, rarely as it is Fresh dining is consumed.


Traditional method


In the present solution, the majority of barberry fruit produced is traditionally dried and presented.In the traditional method, barberry is harvested from the garden surface in three ways and based on the method of harvesting, the drying method is also different.


1- Harvesting clusters by hand


2- Harvesting by hitting the branches


3- Harvesting by cutting off the branches carrying fruit




Research on harvesting methods using plant looseners and sucker collection has also been conducted which has not yet found widespread application.


In the first two methods, cluster harvesting by hand and harvesting by tapping the branches of barberry collected into bags or cardboard and wooden cartons are poured into the bag or cardboard cartons and transported to the drying place, which is usually located away from the garden. Or asphalt is covered and often by flattening the plastic, sack or barzant underneath it prevents the fruit from being contaminated by contact with the ground.Barberry in good conditions under the autumn sun within 10-15 days to reach the desired humidity and dry. The risk of monsoon rains and barberry spoilage, bird and insect attacks are the biggest causes of damage and waste in this method. The quality of barberry harvested by hand after drying is much better than the method of hitting and collecting from under the tree because fresh barberry fruit is less damaged and remains healthier when dried.But barberry collected from under the tree due to damage caused by impact and fall, crushed and has a lower quality.


In the third method- Harvesting barberry by cutting, fruit branches – barberry branches are transported to the drying place.Usually for drying this type of barberry is used indoors or bars.This type of warehouses are equipped with wooden-metal rye or wired with clusters and long branches of barberry on it and with ventilation and in the vicinity of the shade in Barberry that is dried by this method for 14-25 days, but it is immune from the risk of decay, attack of fungi and yeasts or other factors, and barberry is better than dried barberry in previous methods. In addition, it does not pose a risk of corruption caused by rainfall. After drying and reaching the desired moisture, by shaking the branches, the dried fruits are separated and collected.


Optimal drying position conditions


In order to prevent damage and waste caused by drying in traditional methods of court place should be covered in high and far from dust or dust and preferably covered in order to prevent pollution caused by dust to protect against the fall of the barra of the monsoon. The floor of the bar is sometimes covered with cement or asphalt and before flattening the barberry on it by wooden pallets or nets The wire that batwa is slightly higher than the ground (at least 5-10 cm) and ventilation and ejection of moisture from underneath is well covered.Flattening the plastic under fresh fruit not only prevents the removal of moisture but also due to sweating caused by breathing the fruit is completely wet and wet and the squash and rot of the barberry underneath is covered, so the use of lace fabrics and Or linen sacks are much more suitable.The maximum accumulation of the product on the court should not be more than 3 cm, in addition to protecting from insect and bird attack, the use of cloth nets on the surface of the product is very suitable.The site of the court should be such that the air conditioning is well done and the moisture out of the fruit is as far away from the surface of the product as possible. Crimson that dries in the valley and outdoors with the above conditions will have a better quality regularly than dried barberry in the sun and the duration of drying will not be much different from sun conditions.

The most important properties of saffron

Before we want to find out about the properties of saffron except for it, it is good to tell you in a list what saffron is useful for so far:



Alleviasing pain

Prevent hair loss

Improve respiratory health

Improves heart health

Improve mental health

Improve skin health

Strengthening the digestive system

Increased intelligence

But in short, for each of these properties of saffron, we have explanations that can change your perspective on saffron.


1) Treat depression and increase happiness


One of the most important factors that have been effective in the treatment of depression are certain hormones that are responsible for neural control operations. These hormones are called dopamine and sertonin. With a comprehensive study, scientists concluded that saffron is capable of positively controlling these two hormones and helps the depressed person recover faster and taste happiness.


2) Increased intelligence and memory power


Although it has been said that the intelligence of every human being is largely related to his hereditary aspects and empirical efforts, the beautiful saffron plant has changed this rule slightly. It is said that certain minerals increase people’s intelligence and intelligence. After research by researchers, they concluded that these minerals listed below are found entirely in saffron.








Of course, it should be noted that overdose of these substances does not increase over-intelligence but also causes poisoning. These substances effectively also help to increase memory power.


3) Adjust body clock and improve sleep cycle


Sleep is not an activity in our opinion, but it can greatly affect our health. When the hours of sleep are disrupted, that is, the body clock is impaired and the disruption of the watch disrupts the functioning of the body’s components.


Although the cause of sleep disorder can have different causes, saffron can help you experience better and deeper sleep by affecting factors such as mental relaxation, adjusting the body clock, refreshing the body.


4) Hair loss treatment


If you have been careful, something is known in medical science and botany, which is that any plant that forms an organ of the body is useful for that part of the body.


For example, if you cut carrots wide, you will notice that it is similar to the eye and, according to research, contains vitamin A and substances that help strengthen the eye. This has been proven for different fruits.


If you look at saffron, you will notice that it is similar to hair. And it has been proven that craving as much as saffron tea or saffron milk helps to increase hair growth and strength.


5) Treatment of respiratory disorders and chronic coughs


One of the cases of saffron consumption that has been applied to many people is the use of this savory herb for the treatment of pulmonary and respiratory disorders and inflammations.


How saffron treats this issue is not the subject of our discussion, but you can help improve your lungs and lung bronchitis by making a drink containing tea and nigella, cumin, cardamom, chamomile, fennel and licorice.


6) Using saffron for beauty


The use of saffron for beauty has many branches and branches! For example, it has been said that a mother who is pregnant will give birth to a beautiful child if she has enough in certain months that the risk of miscarriage is lower, if she eats saffron!


Also, saffron by improving some diseases and disorders indirectly affects the freshness and well-being of the skin and its beauty.


But saffron tea consumption helps to make the skin refreshing and refreshing and its transparency is really good. People who usually have glowing skin are found in their rations of saffron.


Finally, it is good to know that skin lesions such as stains and freckles are also eliminated by consuming saffron properly in the long run!


7) Improving muscle aches


Saffron has a large amount of minerals that together help to absorb calcium better. Although saffron is a relaxing plant, calcium absorption by saffron helps the body to compensate for its losses and improve.


8) Reduction of heart attacks and strokes


Saffron contains two important substances called potassium and crocin. These two help the arteries and veins heal, thus preventing arteries from clogging and stroke. Crocin also helps regulate blood cholesterol levels and this greatly affects the reduction of heart attacks and artery cramps. So consume saffron for a longer life.


9) Reducing the progression and incidence of cancer


Although saffron consumption during one month has a special rule, the use of this plant regularly helps to prevent cellular and cancer mutations. Also, the growth of many cancerous tumors with saffron stops and the healing process improves. By controlling the production of free radicals and on the other hand, by strengthening the immune system, cancer is controlled and controlled spontaneously.


10) Preventing Alzheimer’s saffron


As mentioned above, saffron helps improve memory. This particularly helps to control or treat some diseases such as amnesia, Parkinson’s, mild Alzheimer’s and moderate Alzheimer’s. Therefore, in order to prevent the decline of intellect and mind during old age, be sure to include saffron in your meal plans.


11) Prevent digestive diseases


Digestive diseases usually arise from changes in body temperament and cooling of nature. But the hot and dry nature of saffron helps to compensate for these colds and improves diseases such as liver enlargement, kidney damage and digestive diseases easily.


12) Preventing presbyopia and improving vision with saffron


According to research, people who regularly eat saffron have eye protection that prevents the damaging effects of direct light. It also helps to improve eye diseases due to its minerals and vitamin A. In addition, macular degeneration patients are able to gain their sight by consuming saffron and benefit from the blessings of seeing.


Other properties of saffron that you need to know.

Considering the properties of the mentioned saffron, please do not miss the following list:


13) It is also effective for the treatment of blood pressure and blood sugar.


14) Women who suffer from menstrual irregularities or have painful menstruation can also recover by taking saffron on time.


15) Diabetes can be controlled and prevented by taking this plant.


16) Gout treatment is possible by this flower.


17) Saffron helps improve men’s sex lives.


18) People who experience cold stomach and abdominal pain by taking saffron to excrete this condition.


19) The body needs to adjust by consuming too much cold food, which saffron does well.


20) Cold may show with hives that saffron helps treat it.


21) Sleep disturbances, urinary disorders and memory disorders can be solved with the help of this palatable and fragrance plant.


22) This plant with hot and dry nature is the best detoxification.


23) There is a simple treatment for MS treatment and saffron is a treatment.


24) Saffron can be used to treat infertility.


25) Helps improve metabolism and leads to increased metabolism and thinness.


How saffron is consumed and its limitations

In addition to all the advantages and properties of saffron, know a little bit about its consumption restrictions so that you don’t be surprised by its extreme consumption.

For saffron consumption, it should not be indulged because it causes poisoning and even death.

Overdoses increase the body’s warmness and engulf some of the body’s internal glands, such as the liver.

Taking this substance is recommended for pregnant women with certain conditions.

Consumption of this plant can cause miscarriage in the early months of pregnancy.


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A series of traditional and special and original things like Saffron, Barberry, Iranian Rice, Gaz, Iranian boards, and special dishes.

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